Glossary of Terms
access privileges – The privileges given to (or withheld from) users to see folders, see files, and make changes to shared volumes.
activity thread – A term used to indicate the separation of multiple, concurrent activities. When Retrospect runs an activity, such as a backup or a restore, it runs that activity in a thread separate from other activities. Generally, each activity requires a unique source and destination. By assigning activities to the same activity thread, it ensures that they will run one after the other.
append – To write additional data to a Media Set. With a Smart Incremental Backup, Retrospect appends file data to the current Media Set member.
archive (noun) – 1. An operation in which files are archived. For example, “The archive was successful last night.” 2. An entity of backup materials. For example, “Retrieve the 1997 accounts from the archive.” In this respect, a Media Set is an archive. Also see Media Set.
archive (verb) – To copy files from a volume to a Media Set. For example, “Let’s archive these QuickTime movies.” Archiving may, optionally, involve removing the copied files from the source. Also see back up.
back up (verb) – To copy files from a volume to a Media Set (such as CD-R or CD-RW, cartridges, or floppy disks). You should back up regularly in case something happens to your hard disk or any files.
backup (noun) – 1. A complete, point-in-time state of a volume backed up by Retrospect that includes a file and folder listing of all files present at the time of the backup, any metadata related to those files, and any actual files necessary to restore that volume. Retrospect’s backups of Windows computers may also contain System State information. Retrospect stores its backups in Media Sets. 2. An operation in which files are backed up. For example, “I just ran today’s backup.” 3. An entity of backup materials. For example, “Fortunately, we can get the backup from the safe and restore the files.” Also see back up, Media Set, and metadata.
backup date – The most recent date and time a Mac OS file, folder, or volume was copied to a Media Set. Retrospect does not rely on this date and will only set this date for volumes, folders, and/or files when you check the appropriate boxes in the Macintosh client options. Also see creation date and modification date.
Backup Set – Previous editions of Retrospect use this term to describe one or more pieces of media that contain the backups. See Media Set.
browser – Retrospect’s tool that allows you to view the folder and file structure of a volume or contents of a Media Set. You can also use a browser to see the files and folders in a Media Set. The browser allows you to manipulate files and mark them to be worked within an operation such as a backup.
Catalog – Retrospect’s index of the files and folders contained in a Media Set. The Catalog file allows you to mark files for restore or retrieval without having to load or insert your Media Set media.
client – A networked Windows, Linux, or Macintosh computer with Retrospect Client software whose volumes are available for backup by the backup computer. Also see backup computer.
compression – Reduces the size of the data being copied to the Media Set
media in a backup or archive. Retrospect can do it with software compression, or a capable tape drive can do it with hardware compression.
condition – In Retrospect’s rules, a distinguishing criterion relating to file or folder characteristics, such as name or creation date. You can choose multiple conditions to make your own custom rules. Also see rules.
Config80.dat file – The file containing your custom settings, including known Media Sets, scripts, security codes, preferences, custom selectors, and client login names. This file is automatically created the first time you start Retrospect, and is used while Retrospect is open. If you delete this file, all of your custom information will be lost and the default configurations will be used.
configured subnet – A subnet that Retrospect has been configured to search for clients.
console – The Retrospect application, which provides control and monitoring capabilities for one or more Retrospect servers running the Retrospect engine. The Retrospect console can control and monitor Retrospect servers over a TCP/IP network, so it need not be installed on the same computer as the Retrospect engine. Also see engine and Retrospect server.
copy (noun) – 1. A replica of one or more files and folders that perfectly match the original files and folders. 2. An operation in which files are copied from one location to another, as in a Copy script. Retrospect’s copy operation can make an exact copy of a volume, including that volume’s ability to start up (boot) a computer. Previous versions of Retrospect called copy operations “duplicate” or “transfer” operations.
copy (verb) – To create an exact duplicate of an original. Retrospect can copy volumes, such as when making a bootable copy of a Mac OS X startup disk, and it can also copy backups from one or more Media Sets to another.
creation date – The time and date a file, folder or volume was created. A file’s creation date is set when the file is first saved or made. A folder’s creation date is set when you select make a new folder. A volume’s creation date is set any time the volume is formatted or erased. With Windows file systems, a copied item’s creation date changes to the date of the copy. Also see backup date and modification date.
creator code – The four-letter code that represents the creator of a file with the Macintosh HFS file system. For example, documents created by SimpleText have a creator code of ttxt. Mac OS X 10.6 “Snow Leopard” discontinued the use of creator codes. Retrospect lets you select files according to creator code, if present.
deduplication – A method for reducing the amount of data stored in a system by eliminating redundant data, replacing it instead with a pointer to the first-stored copy of that data. Retrospect employs a method of deduplication known as file-level deduplication or single-instance storage. Retrospect
destination – The storage medium to which files are being moved, copied, or otherwise transferred. When backing up or archiving, the destination is a Media Set. When restoring or copying, the destination is a volume.
device – Any piece of peripheral equipment connected to your computer, such as a hard disk drive, removable cartridge drive, or tape drive. In this manual, the term “backup device” refers to any device that accepts Media Set media, such as a removable cartridge drive or tape drive.
directory – A hierarchical structure on a volume that may contain files or more directories. These are known as folders in the desktop metaphor used by Windows and the Mac OS.
disaster recovery – The process used to restore a computer that has ceased to function. This involves booting from an alternate startup disk (or installing a temporary OS) and then restoring the entire hard disk from a Retrospect backup.
disk – Retrospect uses the term disk to refer to fixed disks, network volumes,
or removable disks (e.g., RDX, Rev, MO). This manual uses the term disk in two contexts: 1. as an accessible volume for general storage; and 2. as a medium for use in a Disk Media Set.
disk-to-disk-to-disk (D2D2D) – A staged backup methodology that stores regular backups of data from hard disk drives on a primary disk-based backup storage system, followed by copying some or all of the backed up data to a secondary disk-based backup storage system at some specified interval. For example, nightly backups may be stored on a network-attached storage device that gets offloaded to a secondary disk system located offsite once a week.
disk-to-disk-to-tape (D2D2T) – A staged backup methodology similar to D2D2D that stores regular backups of data from hard disk drives on a primary disk-based backup storage system, followed by copying some or all of the backed up data to a tape storage system at some specified interval.
Disk Media Set – For use with fixed disks, network volumes, or removable disks. Also see Backup Set.
encryption – A way of encoding data so that it cannot be used by others without the password.
engine – The background process (RetroEngine) responsible for running Retrospect’s backup and recovery operations, communicating with client computers, and controlling storage devices. A computer running the Retrospect engine is called a Retrospect server and must be controlled via the Retrospect console. Also see console and Retrospect server.
File Media Set – This type of Media Set combines the Catalog and the data in a single file. The Media Set media must be a single volume that is accessible from the Mac OS X Finder, such as a file server or hard disk. Also see Backup Set.
grooming – An option for Disk Media Sets. Retrospect automatically deletes
older files and folders from the Disk Media Set when it runs out of disk space, or on a user-set schedule, in order to make space available for newer backups.
Favorite Folder – A folder you designate as an independent volume for use within Retrospect. Previous versions of Retrospect used the term Subvolume.
live restore – A restore operation that overwrites the files belonging to an operating system while the computer is started up from that operating system. A live restore is often used to roll a system back to a previously backed-up point in time, or in the case of disaster recovery after a temporary operating system has been installed on the computer being restored.
local subnet – The subnet in which the backup computer resides.
matching – The scheme for comparing file attributes to determine whether files are identical, which then allows intelligent copying to avoid redundancy. Also see Smart Incremental Backup.
media action – A setting that determines how Retrospect will use media during a backup. “No media action” tells Retrospect to append data to last member of the Media Set; if the Media Set is empty, Retrospect uses the first member. “Skip to new member” tells Retrospect to use the next available empty media. “Start new Media Set” allows you to periodically introduce new media into your backups, keeping the original Media Set media and Catalog intact for archival purposes. It tells Retrospect to create a new Media Set with an incremented name (for example, Disk Set A would become Disk Set A ), to change all scripts that pointed at the original to point to the new set, and finally to run the activity to the new Media Set. “Recycle Media Set” tells Retrospect to delete the contents of the selected Media Set’s Catalog, then erase and reuse the first member of that Media Set, literally recycling the media and using it over again. Note: A recycle media action is destructive, the other media actions are not.
Media Set – Retrospect stores all files in Media Sets. There are different types of Media Sets for different media and devices: Disk Media Sets for removable and fixed disks, File Media Sets for a single volume, and Tape Media Sets for tape cartridges.
medium – Any hard drive, disc, tape, or cartridge to which files can be copied. In this manual, media usually refers to the media belonging to a Media Set.
member – An individual medium (such as a disk, tape, or cartridge) used in a Media Set.
metadata – Information about the files and folders stored in a file system, such their names, when the files were created, what their size is, and which users can access them. Retrospect uses metadata to determine the uniqueness of files
modification date – The time and date a file was last changed. This date is automatically attached to the file by the computer’s file system. A file’s modification date is reset any time you make changes and save the file (see “backup date” and “creation date”). A folder’s modification date is updated any time a folder or file is added, changed or removed from it.
Open File Backup – Retrospect’s Open File Backup for Windows Clients add-on allows files to be backed up even if they are opened and being used. This is important to ensure proper backup of Windows server applications such as customer relationship management applications and accounting packages, which often run 24 hours a day. For desktop and notebook computers, files such as those that contain e-mail messages or calendar appointments can be backed up while they are in use.
Operations Log – A Retrospect report that tracks all actions by Retrospect. The Operations Log documents all launches, executions, errors, and completions, as well as information on the number of files copied, duration of backup, and backup performance.
path – The fully specified name of a computer file, including the position of the file in the file system’s directory. For example, in Mac OS X, the path of the Network Utility application is:
/Applications/Utilities/Network Utility.app. Also referred to as pathname.
Piton – Retrospect’s own proprietary PIpelined TransactiON protocol for communicating with backup clients. In the live network window, Retrospect uses the Piton name service to establish contact with clients.
Proactive Backup – Retrospect’s technology allowing flexible, resource-driven or user-initiated backups.
selecting – Selecting files in the browser to be backed up or restored. Files can be selected (or deselected) manually, or they can be selected according to various criteria using rules. In the browser, a check mark appears next to any selected file. Files that are only highlighted in a browser are not necessarily selected. Pervious versions of Retrospect referred to selecting as marking.
server – A computer running server software, such as Mac OS X Server or Windows Server 2008.
Smart Incremental Backup – A backup that intelligently copies only files
that aren’t already stored in the destination Media Set. Every Smart Incremental Backup is like a virtual full backup, such that it allows for precise point-in-time restoration of any backed-up volume. Retrospect always performs Smart Incremental Backups. Also see deduplication and matching.
report – Specially configured layouts of Retrospect’s list views that present useful information on a variety of components in the overall backup environment. You can use Retrospect’s built-in reports and create your own.
restore – An operation which copies files from a Media Set to a volume.
Retrospect server – a computer running the Retrospect engine where backup devices are typically connected. Also see console and engine.
root – 1. The highest level of folders in a data structure. When you select a drive icon in the Mac OS X Finder or Windows Explorer, you see the root folders and files. Also denoted on Mac and Linux systems by the first slash (
/) in a path. 2. The superuser account on Mac OS X and Linux systems. The Retrospect engine and Retrospect Client software run as root processes, with full access to the file systems with which they interact.
schedule – A script element that lets you schedule a script to automatically execute at dates and times of your choice.
script – A saved procedure that you can schedule to run at some future date and time or on a repeating schedule, such as daily. You can create as many scripts as you want in Retrospect.
rule – A feature that lets you search for or filter files which match certain conditions, such as All Files Except Cache Files. You can use Retrospect’s built-in rules and create your own.
scope bar – A Mac OS X user interface element that allows for the placement of scope buttons. Also see scope button.
scope button – A button that allows you to manipulate or narrow the focus of a search or display listing. As an example, the “Scheduled” scope button in Retrospect’s Activities view changes the scope of the items displayed in the list view such that only scheduled (upcoming) activities will be shown.
session – In previous versions of Retrospect, a group of files from a single operation stored within a Media Set. Retrospect now uses the term backup to include both session and Snapshot data. Also see backup.
SMART (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology) – A technology built in to some hard disk drives that monitors and analyzes a drive’s mechanical attributes over time and attempts to predict and report pending drive failure.
Snapshot – In pervious versions of Retrospect, a Snapshot refers to the point-in-time file and folder listing that is captured during a backup operation to depict a volume’s state (that is, all its files and their paths). Makes it easy to restore a hard disk to its exact state as of a given backup. Retrospect now uses the term backup to include both session and Snapshot data. Also see backup.
source – In a backup, duplicate, or archive operation, the volume from which files are copied. In a restore, the Media Set from which files are copied.
staged backup – A backup strategy that involves backing up to disk, then transferring the backups to tape. This takes advantage of the benefits of both disk and tape. Also see disk-to-disk-to-disk and disk-to-disk-to-tape.
subnet – A group of local computers physically networked together without a router or gateway, though they may use a gateway to connect to other networks. Also see configured subnet and local subnet.
Subvolume – In previous versions of Retrospect, a folder you designate as an independent volume for use within Retrospect. Retrospect uses the term Favorite Folder.
Tape Media Set – For use with tape drives. Also see Media Set.
TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. An industry-standard network protocol and the standard protocol of the Internet, web servers, and FTP servers. It is the protocol used by Retrospect to communicate with Retrospect clients.
volume – A hard disk, partition of a hard disk, Favorite Folder, file server, or any data storage medium that is logically recognized by Retrospect as a file and folder storage location.